Please notice that the term computer system here includes hardware, software, network
transmission paths, and people who interact with these components. By this definition,
everything from a desktop workstation to the Internet qualifies as a computer system.
An attacker is a person who tries to gain an advantage by exploiting a security hole.
Attackers are misfeasors, masqueraders, or clandestine users.
These authorized users gain additional but unauthorized access to resources on
a system or otherwise misuse their authorization. Examples include programmers who use their
accounts to exploit operating system (OS) vulnerabilities and gain administrative privileges, or
accountants who embezzlemoney by falsifying records in a database to which they have regular
access. A misfeasor is an "inside" person, someone within an organization who introduces a
security risk or poses a threat.
These people use authorized user access privileges to enter a system and
then, posing as that user, attack the system. Examples include hackers who obtain usernames and
passwords by cracking password files, and then use that information to gain entry to the system.
Masqueraders are usually persons outside the organization.
These individuals are insiders or outsiders who obtain their own, distinct
unauthorized access to a system. Examples include hackers who obtain administrative access to a
system long enough to create their own user accounts for subsequent access.
The concepts of access and authorization are not necessarily limited to user accounts within
an OS. Physical access to an equipment closet or authorization to place orders for new telephony
service are examples of other types of access and authorization. All persons who have any degree
of physical or logical interaction with a system, its components, or its processes are capable of
compromising system security.
The goals of an attacker range from innocuous to severely damaging:
Most thrill-seeking attackers are trophy grabbing. Their intent is not to
disrupt or damage a system, but to prove that they can enter the system. Such accomplishments
are badges of achievement in the hacker community.
The most common goal of a security attack is information theft. Intruders
seek sensitive information such as credit card numbers, usernames, passwords, and medical records.
This type of attack involves attackers who use computer resources without
paying for them. Software pirates who crack systems to host stolen software, or warez, for others
to download are guilty of service theft. Clandestine users also commit service theft by having
unauthorized accounts on a server.
This is the act of illegally assuming the identity of another person, or
masquerading, to gain control of that person's resources (usually computer and economic
privileges). An example of this is an attacker who uses stolen social security numbers and credit
histories to establish and exercise unauthorized lines of credit. Identity theft does not necessarily
involve information theft. For example, an attacker can commit e-mail forgerywithout stealing
sensitive information about the e-mail address owner.
This attack is more serious than information theft because the attacker alters
data rather than simply copying it. A student who changes a grade in a university registrar's
database is tampering. This example is stealthy tampering/the attack is not intended to draw
attention. A more extreme form of tampering is defacement, in which a hacker alters a system in
a very noticeable way, usually to make a personal or political statement. The disgruntled
computer operator who, upon dismissal, embeds nasty messages about management in a login
script, or the activist group that hacks into a corporate Web site are typical examples.
Denial of Service (DoS)
DoS can be the most damaging type of security attack. It
diminishes server capacity for authorized clients and temporarily disrupts access to the system. In
the worst cases, DoS attacks render a system unusable for a protracted period by destroying not
only its ability to communicate, but also any data that has been entrusted to it. DoS also can
occur as an unintentional side effect of service theft. For example, hosting pirated warez can
bring down a system because of the excessive download activity.
Although attackers continue to create new methods for violating computer system security,
the vulnerabilities they exploit remain the same. These vulnerabilities can be divided into five
The unquestioning, unchecked acceptance of a person or agent. Attacks that
exploit this vulnerability include: compromised system utilities, e-mail forgery, IP spoofing,
keystroke monitoring, logic bomb, masquerading, shoulder surfing, social engineering, Trojan
A defense is a countermeasurefor dealing with security attacks. Administrators can employ
five types of defenses:
ObfuscationConfusing the attacker by obscuring publicly available information that exposes
vulnerability. Examples include: anonymity, encryption, packet stuffing, public key cryptography,
shielding, steganography, trash disposal.
Authentication and Authorization Ensuring that a person or system claiming an identity is
the real owner of the identity, and granting access on a "must have" basis. Examples include:
badges and cards, biometrics, password, shared secret, signature, watermark.
Monitoring and Auditing Observing system vulnerabilities, either in real time or through
audit tools, to detect attacks. Examples include: filtering, firewall, integrity check, intrusion
detection, misuse detection, password checker, peer review, process review, security audit tools,
Currency Consistently using tested software updates and periodically reviewing human
processes and procedures. Examples include: patching, process review, upgrading.
Education and Enforcement Effectively equipping system designers and users with
knowledge of security risks, and then enforcing application of this knowledge. Examples include:
reminders, tip of the day, training.
The key to preventing security attacks from diminishing system performance is knowledge.
IT administrators can develop their security strategies by studying historical and contemporary
attacks, appropriate defenses, and the evolving trends in the computer security industry.
1, misfeasor [,mis'fi:zə]
2, masquerader [,mæskə'reidə]
3, clandestine [klæn'destin]
4, embezzle [im'bezl]
5, falsify [fɔ:lsifai]
7, innocuous [i'nɔkjuəs]
8, trophy ['trəufi]
10, forgery ['fɔ:dʒəri]
11, tampering ['tæmpəriŋ]
12, defacement [di'feismənt]
13, dismissal [dis'misəl]
14, nasty ['næsti]
15, exploit [iks'plɔit]
16, countermeasure ['kauntə,meʒə]
17, obfuscation [,ɔbfʌ'skeiʃən]
Continue reading it-e-17 Computer System Security
Network architecture describes how computer network is arranged and how computer
resources are shared.
There are a number of specialized terms that describes computer network. Some terms often
used with networks are: node, client, server, network operating system, distributed processing
and host computer.
A node is any device that is connected to a network. It could be a computer, printer, or
communication or data storage device.
A client is a node that requests and uses resources available from other nodes. Typically, a
client is a user's microcomputer.
A server is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Depending on the resources
shared, it may be called a file server, printer server, communication server, or database server.
Network operating system likes Windows, it controls and coordinate the activities between
computers on a network. These activities include electronic communication, information, and
In a distributed processing system, computing power is located and shared at different
locations. This type of system is common in decentralized organizations where divisional
offices have their own computer systems. The computer systems in the divisional offices are
networked to the organization's main or centralized computer.
Host computer is a large centralized computer, usually a minicomputer or a mainframe.
A network may consist only of microcomputers, or it may integrate microcomputers or
other devices with large computers. Networks can be controlled by all nodes working together
equally or by specialized nodes coordinating and supplying all resources. Networks may be
simple or complex, self-contained or dispersed over a large geographical area.
Configuration A network can be arranged or configured in several different ways. The
four principal configurations are star, bus, ring, and hierarchical.
In a star network, a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central
unit. This central unit may be a host computer or a file server. All communications pass through
this central unit. Control is maintained by polling. That is, each connecting device is asked
whether it has a message to send. Each device is then in turn allowed to send its message. One
particular advantage of the star form of network is that it can be used to provide a time-sharing
system. That is, several users can share resources ("time") on a central computer. The star is a
common arrangement for linking several microcomputers to a mainframe that allows access to an
In a bus network, each device in the network handles its own communications control. There
is no host computer. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a bus. As
the information passes along the bus, it's examined by each device to see if the information is
intended for it. The bus network is typically used when only a few microcomputers are to be linked
together. This arrangement is common in systems for electronic mail or for sharing data stored on
different microcomputers. The bus network is not as efficient as the star network for sharing
common resources. (This is because the bus network is not a direct link to the resource.) However,
a bus network is less expensive and is in very common use.
In a ring network, each device is connected to two other devices, forming a ring. There is no
central file server or computer. Message are passed around the ring until they reach the correct
destination. With microcomputers, the ring arrangement is the least frequently used of the four
networks. However, it often is used to link mainframes, especially over wide geographical areas.
These mainframes tend to operate fairly autonomously. They perform most or all of their own
processing and only occasionally share data and programs with other mainframes. A ring
network is useful in a decentralized organization because it makes possible a distributed data
processing system. That is, computers can perform processing tasks at their own dispersed
locations. However, they can also share programs, data and other resources with each other.
The hierarchical network consists of several computers linked to a central host computer,
just like a star network. However, these other computers are also hosts to other, smaller
computers or to peripheral devices. Thus, the host at the top of the hierarchy could be a
mainframe. The computers below the mainframe could be minicomputers, and those below,
microcomputers. The hierarchical network—also called a hybrid network—allows various
computers to share databases, processing power, and different output devices. A hierarchical
network is useful in centralized organizations. For example, different departments within an
organization may have individual microcomputers connected to departmental minicomputers.
The minicomputers in turn may be connected to the corporation’s mainframe, which contains
data and programs accessible to all.
Every network has a strategy or way of coordinating the sharing of information
and resources. The most common network strategies are peer-to-peer and client/server systems.
In a peer-to-peer network system nodes can act as both servers and clients. For example, one
microcomputer can obtain files located on another microcomputer and can also provide files to
other microcomputers. A typical configuration for a peer-to-peer system is the bus network.
Commonly used net operating systems are Apple's Macintosh Peer-to-Peer LANs, Novell’s
Netware Lite, and Microsoft's Windows for Workgroups. There are several advantages to using this
type of strategy. The networks are inexpensive and easy to install, and they usually work well for
smaller systems with less than ten nodes. As the number of nodes increases, however, the
performance of the network declines. Another disadvantage is the lack of powerful management
software to effectively monitor a large network's activities. For these reasons, peer-to-peer network
are typically used by small networks.
Client/server network systems use one powerful computer to coordinate and supply services to
all other nodes on the network. This strategy is based on specialization. Server nodes coordinate
and supply specialized services, and client nodes request the services. Commonly used net
operating systems are Novell's Netware, Microsoft's LAN and Windows NT. One advantage of
client/server network systems is their ability to handle very large networks efficiently. Another
advantage is the powerful network management software that monitors and controls the network's
activities. The major disadvantages are the cost of installation and maintenance.
1, term [tə:m]
2, peripheral [pə'rifərəl]
3, hybrid ['haibrid]
4, dispersed [di'spə:st]
Continue reading it-e-18 Network Architecture
Internet is nowadays widely used in the world, it provides numerous services, such as
on-line booking, BtoB (business to business) services, databases accesses to the companies. But
all these services are asynchronous, which means that there is a delay between an action from the
user and the response from the service (it's a client/server architecture; a computer provides a
service which is used by one or several clients). The new generation of network communication
tools tries to reach the real time level, which means that there is no delay between the action of
the user and the response.
Real time chats, or for instance video on demand, are the new services provided by the
Internet today. These applications appeared recently and are still in development. One really
interesting applications for these technologies is video conference.
Video conference is a technology which allows people to communicate through computer
networks using an audio stream and a video stream. In a few words, people using video
conference can hear and see their correspondents.
Video conference has been very popular only over ISDN (dedicated digital phone lines).
These days, packet-switched networks, such as IP networks, have opened the door to newer
protocols including H.323. The computing power of the desktop systems, the kind of computers
that can be found in the companies or at home, allows the use of video conference applications.
Moreover, webcams, these little low resolution cameras that can be plugged on a regular
computer, are becoming cheaper and cheaper, and almost every computer has now audio
H.323 is the standard for video conference. It can be used over IP (Internet Protocol), and
possibly over all kinds of switched-packet networks (LAN/Local Area Network, MAN/
Metropolitan Area Network, and WAN/Wide Area Network, including the Internet). It was
defined by the ITU (it is the leading publisher of telecommunication technology, regulatory and
standards information ) in 1996. It is updated almost every year, to fit the new progresses in
network capabilities and computing power. The latest version is H.323.5. It was defined in 2003.
The scope of H.323 covers real-time voice, video and data communication over packet-switched
networks. It has multipoint capabilities (several people can communicate with several other people at
the same time) voice and video conferencing capabilities.
The H.323 protocol can be defined as an "umbrella" specification, which means that the protocol
includes several other protocols. In the H.323, the H.225.0, the H.245, the H.450.x, the T.120
protocols are also defined. In addition to these protocols H.323 uses audio codecs (H.261 and H.263),
video codecs (G.711, G.722, G.723.1, G.728 and G.729), and a real-time transport layer called
RTP/RTCP (Real-time Protocol and Real-time Control Protocol). All these protocols cover a different
aspect of the video conference system.
Video conference is one of the most exciting communication media, and will certainly take
a bigger and bigger place in our future. H.323 is a mature protocol that can be safely used for this
purpose. It is widely used by telecom companies, and offers interesting alternatives to the regular
telephone. With the growing power of Internet and the need of world wide communications,
there is no doubt that video conference will be tomorrow for our society what telephone is
1, regulatory ['regjulətəri]
Continue reading it-e-19 Video Conference and H.323
Want to communicate with a friend across town, in another province, or even in another
country? The Internet and the WEB are the 21st-Century information resources designed for all
of us to use.
Browsers are programs that provide access to Web resources. This software connects you to
remote computers, opens and transfers files, displays text and images, and provides in one tool an
uncomplicated interface to the Internet and Web documents. Two well-known browsers are
Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. For browsers to connect to other resources,
the location or address of the resources must be specified. These addresses are called Uniform
Resources Locators (URLs). Following the Domain Name System (DNS), all URLs have at least
three basic parts. The first part presents the protocol used to connect to the resource. The protocol
http:// is by far the most common. The second part presents the domain name or the name of the
server where the resource is located. The server is identified as www.aol.com. (Many URLs have
additional parts specifying directory paths, file names, and pointers.) The last part of the domain
name following the dot (.) is the domain code. It identifies the type of organization. For example,
com indicated a commercial site.
The URL http://www.aol.com connects your computer to a computer that provides
information about America Online (AOL). These informational locations on the Web are called
Web sites. Moving from one Web site to another is called surfing.
Once the browser has connected to a Web site, a document file is sent to your computer.
This document contains Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) commands. The browser
interprets the HTML commands and displays the document as a Web page. Typically, the first
page of a Web site is referred to as its home page. The home page presents information about
the site along with references and hyperlinks, or connections to other documents that contain
related information such as text files, graphic images, audio, and video clips.
These documents may be located on a nearby computer system or on one halfway around
the world. The references appear as underlined and colored text and /or images on the Web page.
To access the referenced material, all you do is click on the highlighted text or image. A link is
automatically made to the computer containing the material, and the referenced material appears.
Communication is the most popular Internet activity. The impact of electronic communication
cannot be overestimated. At a personal level, friends and family can stay in contact with one another
even when separated by thousands of miles. At a business level, electronic communication has
become standard and many times preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers, employees, and
You can communicate with anyone in the world who has an Internet address or e-mail
account with a system connected to the Internet. All you need is access to the Internet and an
e-mail program. Two of the most widely used e-mail programs are Microsoft's Outlook Express
and Netscape's Navigator.
Suppose that you have a friend, Anny, who is going to the University of Southern California.
You and Anny have been planning a trip for the upcoming break. You have heard there are some
inexpensive airfare deals online. To save money, you and Anny agree to research these offers and
e-mail each other your findings.
A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header, message and signature. The
header appears first and typically includes the following information:
Addresses: Addresses of the persons sending, receiving, and, optionally, anyone else
who is to receive copies.
Subject: A one-line description, used to present the topic of the message. Subject lines
typically are displayed when a person checks his or her mail-box.
Attachments: Many e-mail programs allow you to attach files such as documents and
worksheets. If a message has an attachment, the file name appears on the attachment
The letter or message comes next. It is typically short and to the point. Finally, the signature
line provides additional information about the sender. Typically, this information includes the
sender's name, address, and telephone number.
Following the domain name system discussed earlier, e-mail addresses have two basic parts.
The first part is the user's name and the second part is the domain name, which includes the
You can also use e-mail to communicate with people you do not know but with whom you
wish to share ideas and interests. You can participate in discussions and debates that range from
general topics like current events and movies to specialized forums like computer troubleshooting
and Star Trek.
Mailing lists allow members of a mailing list to communicate by sending messages to a list
address. Each message is then copied and sent via e-mail to every member of the mailing list. To
participate in a mailing list, you must first subscribe by sending an e-mail request to the mailing
list subscription address. Once you are a member of a list, you can expect to receive e-mail from
other on the list. You may find the number of messages to be overwhelming. If you want to
cancel a mailing list, send an e-mail request to "unsubscribe" to the subscription address.
Newsgroups, unlike mailing lists, use a special network of computers called the Usenet.
Each of these computers maintains the newsgroups listing. There are over 10,000 different
newsgroups organized into major topic areas that are further subdivided into subtopics.
Contributions to a particular newsgroup are sent to one of the computers on the Usenet. This
computer saves the messages on its system and periodically shares all its recent messages with
the other computers on the Usenet. Unlike mailing lists, a copy of each message is not sent to
each member of a list. Rather, interested individuals check contributions to a particular
newsgroup, reading only those of interest. There are thousands of newsgroups covering a wide
variety of topic areas.
Chat groups allow direct "live" communication. To participate, you join a chat group, select
a channel or topic, and communicate live with others by typing words on your computer. Other
members of your channel immediately see those words on their computers and can respond in the
same manner. One popular chat service is called Internet Relay Chat (IRC). This software is
available free from several locations on the Internet. Using the chat-client software, you log on to
the server, select a channel or topic in which you are interested, and begin chatting. To participate,
you need access to a server or computer that supports IRC. This is done using special chat-client
Instant messaging, like chat groups, allows one or more people to communicate via direct,
"live" communication. Instant messaging, however, provides greater control and flexibility than
chat groups. To use instant messaging, you specify a list of friends, or "buddies", and register
with an instant messaging server. Whenever you connect to the Internet, you use special software
to tell your messaging server that you are online too. It notifies you if any of your buddies are
online. At the same time, it notifies your buddies that you are online. You can then send
messages back and forth to one another instantly.
Before you submit a contribution to a discussion group, it is recommended that you observe
or read the communications from others. This is called lurking. By lurking, you can learn about
the culture of a discussion group. For example, you can observe the level and style of the
discussions. You may decide that a particular discussion group is not what you were looking for
in which case, unsubscribe. If the discussions are appropriate and you wish to participate, try
to fit into the prevailing culture. Remember that your contributions will likely be read by
hundreds of people.
2, impact ['impækt]
3, usenet [ju:znet]
4, Lurking ['lə:kiŋ]
Continue reading it-e-20 Browsers and Communications
(1) Have you heard the hypeabout the wireless Web?
Either way, WAP an acronym for wireless application protocol is making the wireless
Internet a reality, and even if it isn't successful right now, this industry is expecting enormous
growth. Market researcher IDC predicts that 1.3 billion wireless Internet users will have
WAP-enabled devices by 2004.
(2) Where did WAP come from?
An industry consortium called the WAP Forum promotes WAP. The WAP forum was
founded in 1997 by Ericson, Motorola, Nokia and Phone.com after Phone.com developed a
server and browser for AT&T's PocketNet.
(3) What exactly is WAP
WAP is a set of protocols used to transfer data to wireless devices. WAP-enabled devices
provide wireless users with a limited version of the Web designed to work on the small black and
white screens of phones and PADs.
Websites accessed by WAP phones must be re-written to satisfy the wireless application
protocol; in order to do that, Web pages written in HTML must be transferred to the WAP
markup language (WML). Internet browsers like Netscape and Internet Explorer read pages in
HTML, while a micro-browser on a WAP-enabled device reads pages in WML.
Major websites like Yahoo and Amazon.com have carefully designed their WAP sites to
look and feel much like their wired counterparts, while search engines like Google are
transferring pages from HTML to WML so they can be accessed by wireless users.
(4) What's the problem with WAP
WAP faces bandwidth constraints that limit the amount of data that can be transferred to the
devices. On the wireless Internet, users are presented with a fraction of information available on
the traditional version.
And while WAP is the leading wireless protocol now, that doesn't mean that isn't here to
stay. When a better version of the wireless Web becomes available, WAP could very well
One potential competitor is NTT DoCoMo, a Japanese company which has developed a
hugely successful wireless data service called i-mode and expects to tap the U.S. market toward
the end of 2001.
Blue-tooth is a technology that connects electronic devices from camcorders to PDAs to
computers without using wires. Consumers began to see Bluetooth in action when Toshiba
starting selling a Bluetooth-enabled PC card over their website in September 2000 for $199.
Other vendors plan to follow with devices ranging from PDAs to mobile phones.
A Bluetooth device uses radio signal to send information from one Bluetooth device to
another though the air. For example, if you are trying to transfer a PC's address book to a PDA,
first the data in an address book is translated into a language that the PDA can understand by a
conduit. The data goes through the conduit to the Bluetooth device. The Bluetooth device is made
up of a base-band processor, a radio, and an antenna. The base-band processor transfers the data
into signals that the radio can understand, and the radio puts out signals in a frequency (2.4
gigahertz) that the antenna transmits through the air to another Bluetooth device within 30-feet.
The other device receives the data and processes it in the reverse order.
Bluetooth is supported by a Special Interest Group (SIG), which was founded in 1998 and
has approximately 2000 members, all of whom have access to Bluetooth specifications the
information needed to make a Bluetooth product. The SIG includes IBM, Intel, Microsoft and
Nokia, and works to develop and promote the Blue-tooth technology.
But Bluetooth, like many new technologies, may not be an instant hit. There are still plenty
of questions about the ability of these devices to speak the same language. So while devices
produced by the same company could communicate with each other easily, integration may be
difficult when multiple vendors are involved. And while consultants at Forrester Research expect
Bluetooth’s popularity to grow, the firm said in a brief that many businesses won't buy in, "until
user pressure forces them to in 2003“
1, hype [haip]
2, acronym ['ækrənim]
3, enormous [i'nɔ:məs]
4, consortium [kən'sɔ:tjəm]
5, obsolete ['ɔbsəli:t]
6, camcorders ['kʌmkɔ:də(r)]
7, conduit ['kɔndit]
n. [电] 导管；沟渠；导水管
8, antenna [æn'tenə]
Continue reading it-e-21 What is WAP
A VoIP phone is designed specifically for use in a voice over IP(VoIP)system by converting
standard telephone audio into a digital format that can be transmitted over the Internet, and by
converting incoming digital phone signals from the Internet to standard telephone audio. A VoIP
phone allows the user to take advantage of VoIP technology without involving a personal computer,
although an Internet connection is required. Physically, a VoIP phone set resembles a traditional
hard wired or cordless telephone set. Some VoIP phone sets offer enhanced quality audio,
comparable to that on compact disc (CD). A few VoIP phone sets allow for the transmission and
reception of image data during calls, so they can be considered video telephones.
An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise )
that switches calls between VoIP users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain
number of external phone lines. The typical IP PBX can also switch calls between a VoIP user
and a traditional telephone user, or between two traditional telephone user in the same way that a
conventional PBX does. With a conventional PBX, separate networks are necessary for voice and
data communications. One of the main advantages of an IP PBX is the fact that it employs
converged data and voice networks. This means that Internet access, as well as VoIP
communications and traditional telephone communications, are all possible using a single line to
each user. This provide flexibility as an enterprise grows, and can also reduce long-term
operation and maintenance costs.
Ear and mouth (E&M) is a technology in voice over IP (VoIP) that uses a traditional
telephone handset with an earphone (or earpiece) for listening to incoming audio and a
microphone (or mouthpiece) for transmitting audio. Calls using an E&M interface can be made
from, received from , or disconnected by a private banch exchange (PBX) as well as from a
The main advantage of E&M is the fact that it allows a PBX to reliably detect disconnect
(hang-up) signals. This eliminates problems that can otherwise occur with locked computer ports
at the terminations of calls, and thus minimizes the risk of needlessly consuming network
n. 不用电线的adj. 无线的（副词cordlessly）
Continue reading it-e-22 VoIP Phone and IP PBX
The Web can be an incredible resource providing information on nearly any topic
imaginable. Are you planning a trip? Writing an Economics paper? Looking for a movie review?
Trying to locate a long-lost friend? Information sources related to these questions, and much,
much more are available on the Web.
With over two billion pages and more being added daily, the Web is a massive collection of
interrelated pages. With so much available information, locating the precise information you
need can be difficult. Fortunately, a number of organizations called search services or search
providers can help you locate the information you need. They maintain huge databases relating to
information provided on the Web and the Internet. The information stored at these databases
includes addresses, content descriptions or classifications, and keywords appearing on Web pages
and other Internet informational resources. Special programs called agents, spiders, or bots
continually look for new information and update the search services databases. Additionally,
search services provide special programs called search engines that you can use to locate specific
information of the Web.
Search engines are specialized programs that assist you in locating information on the Web
and the Internet. To find information, you go to the search service's Web site and use their search
engine. Yahoo’s search engine, like most others, provides two different search approaches.
In a keyword search, you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want.
The search engine compares your entry against its database and returns a list of hits or sites that
contain the keywords. Each hit includes a hyperlink to the referenced Web page (or other
resource) along with a brief discussion of the information contained at that location. Many
searches result in a large number of hits. For example, if you were to enter the keyword travel,
you would get over a thousand hits. Search engines order the hits according to those sites that
most likely contain the information requested and present the list to you in that order, usually in
groups of ten.
Most search engines also provide a directory or list of categories or topics such as Arts
&Humanities, Business & Economics, Computers & Internet. In a directory search, also known
as index search. You select a category that fits the information that you want. Another list of
subtopics relates to the topic you selected appears. You select the subtopic that best relates to
your topic and another subtopic list appears. You continue to narrow your search in this manner
until a list of Web sites appears. This list corresponds to the hit list previously discussed.
As a general rule, if you are searching for general information, use the directory search
approach. For example, to find general information about music, use a directory search beginning
with the category Arts &Humanities. If you are searching for specific information, use the key
word approach. For example, if you were looking for a specific MP3 file, use a key word search
entering the album title and/or the artist’s name in the text selection box.
A recent study by the NEC Research Institute found that any one search engine includes
only a fraction of the informational sources on the Web. Therefore, it is highly recommended that
you use more than one search engine when researching important topics. Or, you could use a
special type of search engine called a metasearch engine."
One way to research a topic is to visit the Web site for several individual search engines. At
each site, enter the search instructions, wait for the hits to appear, review the list, and visit
selected sites. This process can be quite time-consuming and duplicate responses from different
search engines are inevitable. Metasearch engines offer an alternative.
Metasearch engines are programs that automatically submit your search request to several
search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates,
orders the hits, and then provides the edited list to you. There are several metasearch sites
available on the Web. One of the best known is Metacrawler.
Specialized search engines focus on subject-specific Web sites. Specialized sites can
potentially save you time by narrowing your search. For example, let's say you are researching a
paper about the fashion industry. You could begin with a general search engine like Yahoo! Or,
you could go to a search engine that specialized specifically in fashion.
1, incredible [in'kredəbl]
2, massive ['mæsiv]
Continue reading it-e-23 Search Tools
it-e-24 Understanding the World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access
several Internet protocols on single interface. The World Wide Web is often abbreviated as the
Web or WWW.
The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle
Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland. The initial purpose of the Web was to use networked
hypertext to facilitate communication among its members, who were located in several counties.
Word was soon spread beyond CERN, and a rapid growth in the number of both developers and
users ensued. In addition to hypertext, the Web began to incorporate graphics, video and sound.
The use of the Web has now reached global proportions.
Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. Internet
protocols are sets of rules that allow for intermachine communication on the Internet. The
following major protocols are accessible on the Web:
E-mail (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP): Distributes electronic messages and files
to one or more electronic mailboxes
Telnet (Telnet Protocol): Facilitates login to a computer host to execute commands
FTP (File Transfer Protocol): Transfers text or binary files between an FTP server and client
Usenet (Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP): Distributes Usenet news articles
derived from topical discussions on newsgroups
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol): Transmits hypertext over networks. This is the
protocol of the WWW.
Many other protocols are available on the Web. To name just one example, the Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows users to place a telephone call over the Web.
The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates
a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these
protocols within separate command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols
into a single system. Because of this feature and because of the Web's ability to work with
multimedia and advanced programming languages, the World Wide Web is the fastest-growing
component of the Internet.
The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval.
HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called
links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many
documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents,
images, video and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is
programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the WWW contains a complex virtual
Web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos and sounds.
Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language
called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to
accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the
creation of hypertext links. Graphics may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML
is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed
and released. The World Wide Web Consortium, led by Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts
of standardizing HTML.
The World Wide Web consists of files called pages or Web pages, containing information
and links to resources throughout the Internet.
Web pages can be created by user activity. For example, if you visit a Web search engine
and enter keywords on the topic of your choice, a page will be created containing the results of
your search. In fact, an increasing amount of information found on the Web today is served from
databases, creating temporary Web pages "on the fly" in response to user queries. Access to Web
pages may be accomplished by:
Entering an Internet address and retrieving a page directly.
Browsing through pages and selecting links to move from one page to another.
Searching through subject directories linked to organized collections of Web pages.
Entering a search statement at a search engine to retrieve pages on the topic of your
Today's World Wide Web presents an ever-diversified experience of multimedia, programming
languages and real-time communication. There is no question that it is a challenge to keep up with the
rapid pace of developments. The following presents a brief description of some of the more important
trends to watch.
The Web has become a broadcast medium. It is possible to listen to audio and video over the
Web both pre-recorded and live. For example, you can visit the sites of various news organizations
and view the same videos shown on the nightly television news. Several plug-ins are available for
viewing these videos. For example, Apple's Quick Time Player downloads files with the .mov
extension and displayed these as "movies" in a small window on your computer screen. Quick Time
files can be quite large, and it may take patience to wait for the entire movie to download into your
computer before you can view it.
The problem if slow download times has been answered by a revolutionary development in
multimedia capability: Streaming media. In this case, audio or video files are played as they are
downloading or streaming into your computer. Only a small wait, called buffering, is necessary
before the file begins to play. The RealPlayer plug-in plays streaming audio and video files.
Extensive files such as interviews, speeches and hearings work very well with the RealPlayer.
The RealPlayer is also ideal for the broadcast of real-time events. These may include press
conferences, live radio and television broadcasts, concerts, etc. The Windows Media Player is
another streaming media player. Many sites offer the option to use one player or the other. A list
of sites that make use of these programs is available on the page, Multimedia on the Web.
Shockwave presents another multimedia experience. Shockwave allows for the creation and
implementation of an entire multimedia display combining graphics, animation and sound.
Sound files, including music, may also be heard on the Web. It is not uncommon to visit a
Web page and hear background music. Sound files are also available for downloading
independent of Web page visits. Sound files of many types are supported by the Web with the
appropriate plug-ins. The MP3 file format, and the choice of supporting plug-ins, is the latest
music trend to sweep the Web. The famous Napster site allows for the exchange of MP3 files.
Live cams are anther aspect of the multimedia experience available on the Web. Live cams
are video cameras that send their data in real time to a Web server. These cams may appear in all
kinds of locations, both serious and whimsical: an office, on top of a building, a scenic locale, a
special event, and so on.
The use of existing and new programming languages has extended the capabilities of the
Web. What follows is a basic guide to a group of the more common languages and functions in
use on the Web today.
CGI, Active Server Pages: CGI (Common Gateway Interface) refers to a specification by
which programs can communicate with a Web server. A CGI program, or script, is any program
designed to accept and return data that conforms to the CGI specification. The program can be
written in any programming language, including C, Perl, and Visual Basic Script. A common use
for a CGI script is to process an interactive form on a Web page. For example, you might fill out
a form ordering a book through Interlibrary Loan. The script processes your information and
sends it to a designated e-mail address in the Interlibrary Loan department.
Anther type of dynamically generated Web page is called Active Server Pages (ASP).
Developed by Microsoft, ASPs are HTML pages that include scripting and create interactive
Web server applications. The scripts run on the server, rather than on the Web browser, to
often used for the scripting. ASPs end in the file extension .asp.
Java/Java Applets: Java is probably the most famous of the programming languages of the
Web. Java is an object-oriented programming language similar to C++. Developed by Sun
Microsystems, the aim of Java is to create programs that will be platform independent. The Java
motto is, "Write once, run anywhere." A perfect Java program should work equally well on a PC,
Macintosh, Unix, and so on, without any additional programming. This goal has yet to be
realized. Java can be used to write applications for both Web and non-Web use.
Web-based Java applications are usually in the form of Java applets. These are small Java
programs called from an HTML page that can be downloaded from a Web server and run on a
Java-compatible Web browser. A few examples include live newsfeeds, moving images with
sound, calculators, charts and spreadsheets, and interactive visual displays. Java applets can tend
to load slowly, but programming improvements should lead to a shortened loading time.
Small programs written in this language are embedded within an HTML page, or called externally
drop-down menus, real-time calendars and clocks, and mouse-over interactions. JScript is a similar
language developed by Microsoft and works with the company's Internet Explorer browser.
VRML: VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) allows for the creation of three-dimensional
words. These may be linked from Web pages and displayed with a VRML viewer. Netscape
Communicator comes with the Cosmo viewer for experiencing these three-dimensional worlds. One of
the most interesting aspects of VRML is the option to "enter" the world and control your movements
within the world.
XML: XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a Web page creation language that enables
designers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not available with HTML.
XML is a language of data structure and exchange, and allows developers to separate form from
content. At present, this language is little used as Web browsers are only beginning to support it.
In May 1999, however, the W3 Consortium announced that HTML 4.0 has been recast as an
XML application called XHTML. This move will have a significant impact on the future of both
XML and HTML.
Text, audio and video communication can occur in real time on the Web. This capability
allows people to conference and collaborate in real time. In general, the faster the Internet
connection, the more successful the experience.
At its simplest, chat programs allow multiple users to type to each other in real time.
Internet Relay Chat and America Online's Instant Messenger are prime examples of this type of
program. The development of a messaging protocol is underway. Such a protocol would allow
for the expansion of this capability throughout the Internet.
More enhanced real-time communication offers an audio and/or video component. CU-See
Me is one of the most popular software programs of this type. Even more elaborate are programs
that allow for true real-time collaboration. Microsoft's NetMeeting and Netscape's Conference
(available with Communicator) are good examples of this.
Featured collaboration tools include:
audio: conduct a telephone conversation on the Web;
video: view your audience;
file transfer: send files back and forth among participants;
chat: type in real time;
whiteboard: draw, mark up, and save images on a shared window or board.
document/application sharing: view and use a program on another's desktop machine.
collaborative Web browsing: visit Web pages together.
Currently no standard exists that will work among all conferencing programs.
Push: Push refers to a technology that sends data to a program without the program's request.
This is the opposite of the typical "pull" of the Web, in which the user clicks on a link to request
a file from a server. With push, the data is sent automatically. Content is sent through a "channel".
The early Web-based implementation of push was commercial. Push can also be used to deliver
software upgrades to a desktop machine.
1, facilitate [fə'siliteit]
2, proportions [prə'pɔ:ʃəns]
3, retrieval [ri'tri:vəl]
4, diversified [dai'və:sifaid, di-]
5, whimsical ['(h)wimzikəl]
6, conduct ['kɔndʌkt, -dəkt]
7, commercial [kə'mə:ʃəl]
Continue reading it-e-24 Understanding the World Wide Web
Remember the promise of the paperless office? Computers communicating electronically with
one another were going to replace the tons of paperwork that characterized business-to-business
interaction: purchase orders, invoices, payments, confirmations, documentation. The list was nearly
endless. Electronic document interchange (EDI) was going to be the savior or our systems and
protector of our forests.
It didn't happen. EDI never met the challenges of connecting scores of proprietary and
mission-critical applications. Now a new success of is stepping up to the challenge.
RosettaNet is both a set of standards and a global consortium of more than 500 electronic
components, IT and semiconductor manufacturing companies working to create, implement and
promote open e-business process standards. Founded in 1998, RisettaNet aims to align specific
business processes among trading partners by defining and standardizing up to 100 e-business
transaction processes so that two companies' back-end systems can talk directly to each other.
RosettaNet takes its name from the Rosetta stone, which a soldier in Napoleon's army
discovered in Egypt in 1799. Since it contained parallel inscriptions in both Greek characters and
Egyptian hieroglyphics, it provided a key to deciphering ancient Egyptian writing.
This modern electronic translator speaks the contemporary languages of computer interoperability
XML and SOAP
which should allow disparate systems and business processes from different
organizations to understand and exchange data with one another.
The consortium began its Herculean task by looking at supply chain processes. Members used
business-process modeling to identify the elements of a working business process and create a
clearly defined model of current trading partner interfaces. After extensively researching every level
of the supply chain, as well as analyzing misalignments and inefficiencies, they developed a set of
generic, standardized processes that could serve as the basis for real-world business-to-business
These Partner Interface Processes (PIP) are specialized system-to-system, XML-based
dialogues. Each PIP specification includes a business document and a detailed business process
that includes interaction, data transmission, security and error-handling requirements.
PIPs use two data dictionaries
one for business properties and another for technical properties
that help different companies define the same produce in exactly the same way. The Rosettanet
Implementation Framework defines an exchange protocol, and the Message Guidelines instruct
implementers on how to encode individual PIPs into specific packages.
Such efforts at standardizing generic processes have been tried before and failed. RosettaNet,
however, seems more carefully grounded in the real world, and its PIPs are tested by consortium
members. After consortium partners have agreed through a voting process that a PIP meets
industry needs, it is then published on the RosettaNet Web site and is available for anyone to use.
1, invoice ['invɔis]
2, inscriptions [in'skripʃən]
4, misalignment ['misəlainmənt]
Continue reading it-e-25 RosettaNet
之前mysql都可以连，今天安装了ipv6后就连不上了。报错can not connect to mysql 10061
Continue reading ipv6 影响mysql连接,can not connect to mysql 10061