it-e-21 What is WAP

(1) Have you heard the hypeabout the wireless Web?
Either way, WAP an acronym for wireless application protocol is making the wireless
Internet a reality, and even if it isn't successful right now, this industry is expecting enormous
growth. Market researcher IDC predicts that 1.3 billion wireless Internet users will have
WAP-enabled devices by 2004.
(2) Where did WAP come from?
An industry consortium called the WAP Forum promotes WAP. The WAP forum was
founded in 1997 by Ericson, Motorola, Nokia and Phone.com after Phone.com developed a
server and browser for AT&T's PocketNet.
(3) What exactly is WAP
WAP is a set of protocols used to transfer data to wireless devices. WAP-enabled devices
provide wireless users with a limited version of the Web designed to work on the small black and

white screens of phones and PADs.
Websites accessed by WAP phones must be re-written to satisfy the wireless application
protocol; in order to do that, Web pages written in HTML must be transferred to the WAP
markup language (WML). Internet browsers like Netscape and Internet Explorer read pages in
HTML, while a micro-browser on a WAP-enabled device reads pages in WML.
Major websites like Yahoo and Amazon.com have carefully designed their WAP sites to
look and feel much like their wired counterparts, while search engines like Google are
transferring pages from HTML to WML so they can be accessed by wireless users.
(4) What's the problem with WAP
WAP faces bandwidth constraints that limit the amount of data that can be transferred to the
devices. On the wireless Internet, users are presented with a fraction of information available on
the traditional version.
And while WAP is the leading wireless protocol now, that doesn't mean that isn't here to
stay. When a better version of the wireless Web becomes available, WAP could very well
become obsolete.
One potential competitor is NTT DoCoMo, a Japanese company which has developed a
hugely successful wireless data service called i-mode and expects to tap the U.S. market toward
the end of 2001.
Blue-tooth is a technology that connects electronic devices from camcorders to PDAs to
computers without using wires. Consumers began to see Bluetooth in action when Toshiba
starting selling a Bluetooth-enabled PC card over their website in September 2000 for $199.
Other vendors plan to follow with devices ranging from PDAs to mobile phones.
A Bluetooth device uses radio signal to send information from one Bluetooth device to
another though the air. For example, if you are trying to transfer a PC's address book to a PDA,
first the data in an address book is translated into a language that the PDA can understand by a
conduit. The data goes through the conduit to the Bluetooth device. The Bluetooth device is made
up of a base-band processor, a radio, and an antenna. The base-band processor transfers the data
into signals that the radio can understand, and the radio puts out signals in a frequency (2.4
gigahertz) that the antenna transmits through the air to another Bluetooth device within 30-feet.
The other device receives the data and processes it in the reverse order.
Bluetooth is supported by a Special Interest Group (SIG), which was founded in 1998 and
has approximately 2000 members, all of whom have access to Bluetooth specifications the
information needed to make a Bluetooth product. The SIG includes IBM, Intel, Microsoft and
Nokia, and works to develop and promote the Blue-tooth technology.
But Bluetooth, like many new technologies, may not be an instant hit. There are still plenty
of questions about the ability of these devices to speak the same language. So while devices
produced by the same company could communicate with each other easily, integration may be

difficult when multiple vendors are involved. And while consultants at Forrester Research expect
Bluetooth’s popularity to grow, the firm said in a brief that many businesses won't buy in, "until
user pressure forces them to in 2003“

1, hype  [haip]
v. 大肆宣传
2, acronym  ['ækrənim]
n. 缩写字,字头语
3, enormous  [i'nɔ:məs]
a. 巨大的,庞大的
4, consortium  [kən'sɔ:tjəm]
n. 联合,合伙,国际财团
5, obsolete  ['ɔbsəli:t]
a. 已废弃的,过时的
6, camcorders  ['kʌmkɔ:də(r)]
便携式摄像机,摄录机
7, conduit  ['kɔndit]
n. [电] 导管;沟渠;导水管
8, antenna  [æn'tenə]
n. 触角,天线

Continue reading it-e-21 What is WAP

it-e-22 VoIP Phone and IP PBX

A VoIP phone is designed specifically for use in a voice over IP(VoIP)system by converting
standard telephone audio into a digital format that can be transmitted over the Internet, and by
converting incoming digital phone signals from the Internet to standard telephone audio. A VoIP
phone allows the user to take advantage of VoIP technology without involving a personal computer,
although an Internet connection is required. Physically, a VoIP phone set resembles a traditional
hard wired or cordless telephone set. Some VoIP phone sets offer enhanced quality audio,
comparable to that on compact disc (CD). A few VoIP phone sets allow for the transmission and
reception of image data during calls, so they can be considered video telephones.
An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise )
that switches calls between VoIP users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain

number of external phone lines. The typical IP PBX can also switch calls between a VoIP user
and a traditional telephone user, or between two traditional telephone user in the same way that a
conventional PBX does. With a conventional PBX, separate networks are necessary for voice and
data communications. One of the main advantages of an IP PBX is the fact that it employs
converged data and voice networks. This means that Internet access, as well as VoIP
communications and traditional telephone communications, are all possible using a single line to
each user. This provide flexibility as an enterprise grows, and can also reduce long-term
operation and maintenance costs.
Ear and mouth (E&M) is a technology in voice over IP (VoIP) that uses a traditional
telephone handset with an earphone (or earpiece) for listening to incoming audio and a
microphone (or mouthpiece) for transmitting audio. Calls using an E&M interface can be made
from, received from , or disconnected by a private banch exchange (PBX) as well as from a
VoIP-capable computer.
The main advantage of E&M is the fact that it allows a PBX to reliably detect disconnect
(hang-up) signals. This eliminates problems that can otherwise occur with locked computer ports
at the terminations of calls, and thus minimizes the risk of needlessly consuming network
resources.

cordless ['kɔ:dlis]

n. 不用电线的adj. 无线的(副词cordlessly)

Continue reading it-e-22 VoIP Phone and IP PBX

it-e-23 Search Tools

The Web can be an incredible resource providing information on nearly any topic
imaginable. Are you planning a trip? Writing an Economics paper? Looking for a movie review?
Trying to locate a long-lost friend? Information sources related to these questions, and much,
much more are available on the Web.
With over two billion pages and more being added daily, the Web is a massive collection of
interrelated pages. With so much available information, locating the precise information you
need can be difficult. Fortunately, a number of organizations called search services or search
providers can help you locate the information you need. They maintain huge databases relating to
information provided on the Web and the Internet. The information stored at these databases
includes addresses, content descriptions or classifications, and keywords appearing on Web pages
and other Internet informational resources. Special programs called agents, spiders, or bots

continually look for new information and update the search services databases. Additionally,
search services provide special programs called search engines that you can use to locate specific
information of the Web.
[1]Search engines are specialized programs that assist you in locating information on the Web
and the Internet. To find information, you go to the search service's Web site and use their search
engine. Yahoo’s search engine, like most others, provides two different search approaches.
Keyword Search
In a keyword search, you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want.
The search engine compares your entry against its database and returns a list of hits or sites that
contain the keywords. Each hit includes a hyperlink to the referenced Web page (or other
resource) along with a brief discussion of the information contained at that location. Many
searches result in a large number of hits. For example, if you were to enter the keyword travel,
you would get over a thousand hits. [2]Search engines order the hits according to those sites that
most likely contain the information requested and present the list to you in that order, usually in
groups of ten.
Directory Search
Most search engines also provide a directory or list of categories or topics such as Arts
&Humanities, Business & Economics, Computers & Internet. In a directory search, also known
as index search. You select a category that fits the information that you want. Another list of
subtopics relates to the topic you selected appears. You select the subtopic that best relates to
your topic and another subtopic list appears. You continue to narrow your search in this manner
until a list of Web sites appears. This list corresponds to the hit list previously discussed.
As a general rule, if you are searching for general information, use the directory search
approach. For example, to find general information about music, use a directory search beginning
with the category Arts &Humanities. If you are searching for specific information, use the key
word approach. For example, if you were looking for a specific MP3 file, use a key word search
entering the album title and/or the artist’s name in the text selection box.
A recent study by the NEC Research Institute found that any one search engine includes
only a fraction of the informational sources on the Web. Therefore, it is highly recommended that
you use more than one search engine when researching important topics. Or, you could use a
special type of search engine called a metasearch engine."
One way to research a topic is to visit the Web site for several individual search engines. At
each site, enter the search instructions, wait for the hits to appear, review the list, and visit
selected sites. This process can be quite time-consuming and duplicate responses from different
search engines are inevitable. Metasearch engines offer an alternative.
Metasearch engines are programs that automatically submit your search request to several

search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates,
orders the hits, and then provides the edited list to you. There are several metasearch sites
available on the Web. One of the best known is Metacrawler.

Specialized search engines focus on subject-specific Web sites. Specialized sites can
potentially save you time by narrowing your search. For example, let's say you are researching a
paper about the fashion industry. You could begin with a general search engine like Yahoo! Or,
you could go to a search engine that specialized specifically in fashion.

1, incredible  [in'kredəbl]
a. 难以置信的
2, massive  ['mæsiv]
a. 巨大的

Continue reading it-e-23 Search Tools

it-e-24 Understanding the World Wide Web

it-e-24 Understanding the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access
several Internet protocols on single interface. The World Wide Web is often abbreviated as the
Web or WWW.
The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle
Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland. The initial purpose of the Web was to use networked
hypertext to facilitate communication among its members, who were located in several counties.
Word was soon spread beyond CERN, and a rapid growth in the number of both developers and
users ensued. In addition to hypertext, the Web began to incorporate graphics, video and sound.
The use of the Web has now reached global proportions.

Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. Internet

protocols are sets of rules that allow for intermachine communication on the Internet. The
following major protocols are accessible on the Web:
E-mail (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP): Distributes electronic messages and files
to one or more electronic mailboxes
Telnet (Telnet Protocol): Facilitates login to a computer host to execute commands
FTP (File Transfer Protocol): Transfers text or binary files between an FTP server and client
Usenet (Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP): Distributes Usenet news articles
derived from topical discussions on newsgroups
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol): Transmits hypertext over networks. This is the
protocol of the WWW.
Many other protocols are available on the Web. To name just one example, the Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows users to place a telephone call over the Web.
The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates
a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these
protocols within separate command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols
into a single system. Because of this feature and because of the Web's ability to work with
multimedia and advanced programming languages, the World Wide Web is the fastest-growing
component of the Internet.
The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval.
HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called
links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many
documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents,
images, video and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is
programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the WWW contains a complex virtual
Web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos and sounds.
Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language
called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to
accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the
creation of hypertext links. Graphics may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML
is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed
and released. The World Wide Web Consortium, led by Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts
of standardizing HTML.
The World Wide Web consists of files called pages or Web pages, containing information
and links to resources throughout the Internet.
Web pages can be created by user activity. For example, if you visit a Web search engine
and enter keywords on the topic of your choice, a page will be created containing the results of

your search. In fact, an increasing amount of information found on the Web today is served from
databases, creating temporary Web pages "on the fly" in response to user queries. Access to Web
pages may be accomplished by:
Entering an Internet address and retrieving a page directly.
Browsing through pages and selecting links to move from one page to another.
Searching through subject directories linked to organized collections of Web pages.
Entering a search statement at a search engine to retrieve pages on the topic of your
choice.
Today's World Wide Web presents an ever-diversified experience of multimedia, programming
languages and real-time communication. There is no question that it is a challenge to keep up with the
rapid pace of developments. The following presents a brief description of some of the more important
trends to watch.
The Web has become a broadcast medium. It is possible to listen to audio and video over the
Web both pre-recorded and live. For example, you can visit the sites of various news organizations
and view the same videos shown on the nightly television news. Several plug-ins are available for
viewing these videos. For example, Apple's Quick Time Player downloads files with the .mov
extension and displayed these as "movies" in a small window on your computer screen. Quick Time
files can be quite large, and it may take patience to wait for the entire movie to download into your
computer before you can view it.
The problem if slow download times has been answered by a revolutionary development in
multimedia capability: Streaming media. In this case, audio or video files are played as they are
downloading or streaming into your computer. Only a small wait, called buffering, is necessary
before the file begins to play. The RealPlayer plug-in plays streaming audio and video files.
Extensive files such as interviews, speeches and hearings work very well with the RealPlayer.
The RealPlayer is also ideal for the broadcast of real-time events. These may include press
conferences, live radio and television broadcasts, concerts, etc. The Windows Media Player is
another streaming media player. Many sites offer the option to use one player or the other. A list
of sites that make use of these programs is available on the page, Multimedia on the Web.
Shockwave presents another multimedia experience. Shockwave allows for the creation and
implementation of an entire multimedia display combining graphics, animation and sound.
Sound files, including music, may also be heard on the Web. It is not uncommon to visit a
Web page and hear background music. Sound files are also available for downloading
independent of Web page visits. Sound files of many types are supported by the Web with the
appropriate plug-ins. The MP3 file format, and the choice of supporting plug-ins, is the latest
music trend to sweep the Web. The famous Napster site allows for the exchange of MP3 files.
Live cams are anther aspect of the multimedia experience available on the Web. Live cams
are video cameras that send their data in real time to a Web server. These cams may appear in all

kinds of locations, both serious and whimsical: an office, on top of a building, a scenic locale, a
special event, and so on.
The use of existing and new programming languages has extended the capabilities of the
Web. What follows is a basic guide to a group of the more common languages and functions in
use on the Web today.
CGI, Active Server Pages: CGI (Common Gateway Interface) refers to a specification by
which programs can communicate with a Web server. A CGI program, or script, is any program
designed to accept and return data that conforms to the CGI specification. The program can be
written in any programming language, including C, Perl, and Visual Basic Script. A common use
for a CGI script is to process an interactive form on a Web page. For example, you might fill out
a form ordering a book through Interlibrary Loan. The script processes your information and
sends it to a designated e-mail address in the Interlibrary Loan department.
Anther type of dynamically generated Web page is called Active Server Pages (ASP).
Developed by Microsoft, ASPs are HTML pages that include scripting and create interactive
Web server applications. The scripts run on the server, rather than on the Web browser, to
generate the HTML pages sent to browsers. Visual Basic and JScript (a subset of JavaScript) are
often used for the scripting. ASPs end in the file extension .asp.
Java/Java Applets: Java is probably the most famous of the programming languages of the
Web. Java is an object-oriented programming language similar to C++. Developed by Sun
Microsystems, the aim of Java is to create programs that will be platform independent. The Java
motto is, "Write once, run anywhere." A perfect Java program should work equally well on a PC,
Macintosh, Unix, and so on, without any additional programming. This goal has yet to be
realized. Java can be used to write applications for both Web and non-Web use.
Web-based Java applications are usually in the form of Java applets. These are small Java
programs called from an HTML page that can be downloaded from a Web server and run on a
Java-compatible Web browser. A few examples include live newsfeeds, moving images with
sound, calculators, charts and spreadsheets, and interactive visual displays. Java applets can tend
to load slowly, but programming improvements should lead to a shortened loading time.
JavaScript/JScript: JavaScript is a programming language created by Netscape Communications.
Small programs written in this language are embedded within an HTML page, or called externally
from the page, to enhance the page's the functionality. Examples of JavaScript include moving tickers,
drop-down menus, real-time calendars and clocks, and mouse-over interactions. JScript is a similar
language developed by Microsoft and works with the company's Internet Explorer browser.
VRML: VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) allows for the creation of three-dimensional
words. These may be linked from Web pages and displayed with a VRML viewer. Netscape
Communicator comes with the Cosmo viewer for experiencing these three-dimensional worlds. One of
the most interesting aspects of VRML is the option to "enter" the world and control your movements
within the world.
XML: XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a Web page creation language that enables

designers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not available with HTML.
XML is a language of data structure and exchange, and allows developers to separate form from
content. At present, this language is little used as Web browsers are only beginning to support it.
In May 1999, however, the W3 Consortium announced that HTML 4.0 has been recast as an
XML application called XHTML. This move will have a significant impact on the future of both
XML and HTML.
Text, audio and video communication can occur in real time on the Web. This capability
allows people to conference and collaborate in real time. In general, the faster the Internet
connection, the more successful the experience.
At its simplest, chat programs allow multiple users to type to each other in real time.
Internet Relay Chat and America Online's Instant Messenger are prime examples of this type of
program. The development of a messaging protocol is underway. Such a protocol would allow
for the expansion of this capability throughout the Internet.
More enhanced real-time communication offers an audio and/or video component. CU-See
Me is one of the most popular software programs of this type. Even more elaborate are programs
that allow for true real-time collaboration. Microsoft's NetMeeting and Netscape's Conference
(available with Communicator) are good examples of this.
Featured collaboration tools include:
audio: conduct a telephone conversation on the Web;
video: view your audience;
file transfer: send files back and forth among participants;
chat: type in real time;
whiteboard: draw, mark up, and save images on a shared window or board.
document/application sharing: view and use a program on another's desktop machine.
collaborative Web browsing: visit Web pages together.
Currently no standard exists that will work among all conferencing programs.
Push: Push refers to a technology that sends data to a program without the program's request.
This is the opposite of the typical "pull" of the Web, in which the user clicks on a link to request
a file from a server. With push, the data is sent automatically. Content is sent through a "channel".
The early Web-based implementation of push was commercial. Push can also be used to deliver
software upgrades to a desktop machine.

1, facilitate  [fə'siliteit]
v. 帮助,使...容易,促进
2, proportions  [prə'pɔ:ʃəns]
n. 比例;大小(proportion的复数形式)
3, retrieval  [ri'tri:vəl]
n. 取回,恢复,修补
4, diversified  [dai'və:sifaid, di-]
adj. 多样化的;各种的
v. 使…多样化(diversify的过去分词)
5, whimsical  ['(h)wimzikəl]
a. 心情浮动的,反覆无常的,古怪的
6, conduct  ['kɔndʌkt, -dəkt]
n. 行为,举动,品行
vt. 引导,指挥,管理
vt. 导电,传热
7, commercial  [kə'mə:ʃəl]
a. 商业的
n. 商业广告

Continue reading it-e-24 Understanding the World Wide Web

it-e-25 RosettaNet

Remember the promise of the paperless office? Computers communicating electronically with
one another were going to replace the tons of paperwork that characterized business-to-business
interaction: purchase orders, invoices, payments, confirmations, documentation. The list was nearly
endless. Electronic document interchange (EDI) was going to be the savior or our systems and
protector of our forests.
It didn't happen. EDI never met the challenges of connecting scores of proprietary and
mission-critical applications. Now a new success of is stepping up to the challenge.
RosettaNet is both a set of standards and a global consortium of more than 500 electronic
components, IT and semiconductor manufacturing companies working to create, implement and
promote open e-business process standards. Founded in 1998, RisettaNet aims to align specific
business processes among trading partners by defining and standardizing up to 100 e-business

transaction processes so that two companies' back-end systems can talk directly to each other.
RosettaNet takes its name from the Rosetta stone, which a soldier in Napoleon's army
discovered in Egypt in 1799. Since it contained parallel inscriptions in both Greek characters and
Egyptian hieroglyphics, it provided a key to deciphering ancient Egyptian writing.
This modern electronic translator speaks the contemporary languages of computer interoperability
XML and SOAP
which should allow disparate systems and business processes from different
organizations to understand and exchange data with one another.
The consortium began its Herculean task by looking at supply chain processes. Members used
business-process modeling to identify the elements of a working business process and create a
clearly defined model of current trading partner interfaces. After extensively researching every level
of the supply chain, as well as analyzing misalignments and inefficiencies, they developed a set of
generic, standardized processes that could serve as the basis for real-world business-to-business
alignment.
These Partner Interface Processes (PIP) are specialized system-to-system, XML-based
dialogues. Each PIP specification includes a business document and a detailed business process
that includes interaction, data transmission, security and error-handling requirements.
PIPs use two data dictionaries
one for business properties and another for technical properties
that help different companies define the same produce in exactly the same way. The Rosettanet
Implementation Framework defines an exchange protocol, and the Message Guidelines instruct
implementers on how to encode individual PIPs into specific packages.
Such efforts at standardizing generic processes have been tried before and failed. RosettaNet,
however, seems more carefully grounded in the real world, and its PIPs are tested by consortium
members. After consortium partners have agreed through a voting process that a PIP meets
industry needs, it is then published on the RosettaNet Web site and is available for anyone to use.

1, invoice  ['invɔis]
n. 发票,发货单,货物
v. 开发票,记清单
2, inscriptions  [in'skripʃən]
n. 题字,碑铭
3, deciphering   
解密
4, misalignment  ['misəlainmənt]
n. 不重合;未对准

Continue reading it-e-25 RosettaNet

it-e-26 Definitions and Content of the Electronic Commerce

Electronic Commerce over the Internet is a new concept. In recent years, it has become so
broadly used that it is often left undifferentiated from other current trends which rely on
automation, such as concurrent engineering and just in time manufacturing. Many companies,
including CyberCash, Dig Cash,First Virtual, and Open Market had provided a variety of
electronic commerce services.
[1] If you have access to a personal computer (PC) and can connect to the Internet with a
browser, you can do business online. No more worries about programming. No more searching
for outdated catalogs as a customer or printing catalogs as a merchant. No more looking for
phone numbers, paying long-distance to connect, or keeping the store open late into the evening.
Just get on the Web, open an online store, and watch your business grow.
The wired world of business, developed technology, human talent, and a new way of doing
business make up today's growing worldwide economy. The backbone of this electronic
commerce is the Internet. The wired world is not about technology, it is about information,
decision making and communication. The wired world is changing life for everyone, from the
single household to the largest corporation. [2]No business can afford to ignore the potential of a
connected economy.
Electronic commerce is anemergingconcept that describes the process of buying and

selling or exchanging of products, services, and information via computer networks including the
Internet. Kalakota and Whinston (1997) define EC from these perspectives:
From a communications perspective, EC is the delivery of information, products/services, or
payments over telephone lines, computer networks, or any other electronic means.
From a business process perspective, EC is the application of technology toward the
automation of business transactions and work flow.
From a service perspective, EC is a tool that addresses the desire of firms, consumers, and
management to cut service costs while improving the quality of goods and increasing the speed
of service delivery.
From an on-line perspective, EC provides the capability of buying and selling products and
information on the Internet and other on-line services.
The term commerce is viewed by some as transactions conducted between business partners.
Therefore, the term electronic commerce seems to be fairly narrow to some people. Thus, many
use the term e-business. It refers to a broader definition of EC, not just buying and selling but
also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic
transactions within an organization. According to Lou Gerstner, IBM's CEO: "E-business is all
about cycle time, speed, globalization, enhanced productivity, reaching new customers and
sharing knowledge across institutions for competitive advantage."
Just like any other type of commerce, electronic commerce involves two parties: businesses
and consumers. There are three basic types of electronic commerce.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C): These areretailingtransactions with individual shoppers. The
typical shopper at Amazon.com is a consumer, or a customer. Oftentimes, this arrangement
eliminates the middleman by providing manufacturers direct sales to customers. Other times,
retail stores create a presence on the Web as another way to reach customers.
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C): This category involves individuals selling to individuals.
This often takes the form of an electronic version of the classified ads or anauction. Goods are
described and interested buyers contact sellers tonegotiateprices. [3]Unlike traditional sales via
classified ads and auctions, buyers and sellers typically never meet face-to-face. Examples are
individuals selling in classified ads and selling residential property, cars, and so on. Advertising
personal services on the Internet and selling knowledge and expertise is another example of C2C.
Several auction sites allow individuals to put items up for auctions. Finally , many individuals are
using internal networks to advertise items for sale or service.
Business-to-Business (B2B): This category involves the sale of a product or service from
one business to another. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. For example, a
furniture manufacturer requires raw materials such as wood, paint, andvarnish. In B2B electronic
commerce, manufacturers electronically place orders with suppliers and many times payment is
made electronically.
Many people think EC is just having a Web site, but EC is much more than that. There are
dozens of applications of EC such as home banking, shopping in on-line stores and malls, buying

stocks, finding a job, conducting an auction, and collaborating electronically on research and
development projects. To execute these applications, it is necessary to have supporting information
and organizational infrastructure and systems. EC applications are supported by infrastructures, and
their implementation is dependent on four major areas: people, public policy, technical standards
and protocols, and other organizations. The EC management coordinates the applications,
infrastructures, andpillars.

1, merchant  ['mə:tʃənt]
n. 商人,店主
a. 商业的
2, emerge  [i'mə:dʒ]
v. 浮现,(由某种状态)脱出,(事实)显现出来
3, retailing  ['ri:teiliŋ]
n. 零售业
4, auction  ['ɔ:kʃən]
vt. 拍卖;竞卖
n. 拍卖
5, negotiate  [ni'gəuʃieit]
v. 商议,谈判,交涉
6, varnish  ['vɑ:niʃ]
n. 油漆,掩饰,光泽面
v. 粉饰,涂油漆于
7, pillars  
n. 栋梁

Continue reading it-e-26 Definitions and Content of the Electronic Commerce

it-e-27 What is EDI?

(1) I thought electronic data interchange (EDI) was an old technology, why am I still
hearing about it? EDI refers to the electronic exchange of business information between two

companies using a specific and structured format. The concept has been around since the 1970s
and has traditionally been used to automate buyer-seller transactions such as invoices and
purchase orders. But as more processes within a company become automated, EDI has expended
to areas such as inventory management and product distribution.
(2) How does it work?
EDI relies on standards, or common methods of defining classes of business data, which
allow computers to recognize what data belongs to what department in a company. In the early
days of EDI, many companies built in-house EDI standards, but as interest grew, industries
started to agree on common standards, administered by standards organizations. These standards,
which allow computers in different organizations to share information over privately built, closed
networks known as value-added networks, led to the use of EDI for corporate purchasing.
(3) What are the benefitsF
Consider a very simple non-EDI-based purchase. A buyer decides he needs 365 hammers.
He creates a purchase order, prints it out and pops it in the mail. When the supplier gets the order,
she types it into her company's computer system. The inventory guy pulls the order and ships out
the hammers. Next, the supplier prints out and mails an invoice. It's not hard to imagine that this
process could take several days. EDI has the potential to cut massive amounts of time out of the
process. Sending documents, such as purchase orders or invoices, electronically takes minutes,
not days, and shipments can often go out the day the order comes in. Moreover, the electronic
format does not need to be rekeyed upon arrival, which also eliminates the possibility of typos.
And EDI reduces costs by cutting down on data input, routing and delivery.
(4) What does all of this have to do with the INTERNET
Building an EDI system has traditionally required a substantial investment in some
heavy-duty computers and networking equipment for both parties. Sometimes a large buyer, such
as Wal-mart, will require that all its suppliers be EDI-compliant. That puts a burden on smaller
suppliers, forcing them to choose between a heavy technical investment and a loss of business.
And EDI isn't instantaneous. Because it uses information that frequently resides in mainframes,
the quality of information on an EDI network depends on how frequently the data is refreshed
from the mainframe.
And that's the promise of the Web, which offers much lower connectivity costs. That, added
to the lower costs of PCs and simpler software, makes EDI over the Web a compelling
proposition. Moreover, XML, an open standard for sharing data on the Web, is starting to appear
as a method of coding EDI standards, which could provide technical clarity across industries.
E-business
(1) That does e-business really mean
The most basic definition of e-business is simply this: using the Internet to connect with
customers, partners, and suppliers. But the term also implies the transformation of existing business
processes to make them more efficient. To engage in e-business, companies need to be able to unlock

data in their back-end computer systems, so they can share information and conduct electronic
transactions with customers, partners, and suppliers via the Internet. And for some companies,
engaging in e-business means adopting new web-enabled business models-auctioning off surplus
goods, selling products directly to consumers, or joining in online purchasing cooperatives with their
competitors. Without a doubt, embarkingon an e-business effort requires as much thinking about
business strategy as it does about technology.
(2) How is e-business different from e-commerceF
In some instances, the terms are used interchangeably, but to purists, e-commerce refers
only to online transactions. The term e-business encompasses online transactions, but it also
refers to online exchanges of information, such as a manufacturer letting its suppliers monitor
production schedules via an extranet (a secure web site that can be accessed only by authorized
parties), or a financial institution letting its customers review their banking, credit card, and
mortgageaccounts via a single web interface. In this respect, e-business overlaps with the
business-technology disciplines of customer relationship management (CRM) and supply chain
management (SCM).
(3) Just how much electronic commerce is being conducted via the Net
Despite all the hype, Internet-based e-commerce currently amounts to only a small fraction of
the U.s. GDP. But experts predict e-commerce volumes will grow exponentially over the next few
years, particularly in business-to-business e-commerce
that is, transactions between businesses
and their suppliers, partners, and business customers. Cambridge, Mass.-based market researcher
Forrester Research Inc. predicts business-to-business e-commerce in the U.S. will grow from
$406.2 billion in 2000 to $207 trillion in 2004. By contrast, Forrester predicts that
business-to-consumer e-commerce in the U.S. will grow from $38.8 billion in 2000 to $184.5
billion in 2004.
(4) Who should be in charge of a company's e-business effort?
In some companies, early web efforts were led by marketing or IT departments as special
projects. But that is starting to change, as e-business becomes a higher priority for the business as
a whole. A recent survey of large global corporations by Pricewaterhouse Coopers and The
Conference Board found that nearly 50 percent of them have full-time units devoted to e-business.
A survey of dotcoms and traditional companies by International Data Corp. (a Darwin sister
company) found that roughly 50 percent of e-business efforts are headed by CEOs.
(5) Have all companies jumped on the e-business bandwagon?
Not yet. Pricewaterhouse Coopers and The Conference Board found that 70 percent of the
global companies they surveyed derive less than 5 percent of their revenues from e-business.
Several factors have kept some companies surveyed from rolling out e-business initiatives,
including the following: potentially high and uncertain implementation costs; lack of demonstrated
ROI within their industry; concern about tax, legal, and privacy issues related to e-business; and
scant use of the internet among their customers.

What is ERP?

(1) I'm tired of pretending I know what ERP is
An enterprise resource planning software, or ERP, doesn't live up to its acronym. Forget
about planning
it doesn't
and forget about resource, a throwaway term. But remember the
enterprise part. This is ERP's true ambition. It attempts to integrate all departments and functions
across a company to create a single software program that runs off one database.
That's tall order. Each of those departments, like finance or human resource, typically has its
own computer system, each optimized for the particular department. Typically, when a customer
places an order, the order begins a mostly paper-based journey from in-basket to in-basket around
the company, often being keyed and rekeyed into different computer systems along the way. All
that lounging around in in-baskets causes delays and lost orders, and all the keying into different
computer systems invites errors. Meanwhile, no one truly knows the order status.
(2) So what can ERP do
ERP automates the tasks necessary to perform a business process
such as order fulfillment,
which involves taking and order from a customer, shipping it and billing for it. With ERP, when
a customer service representative takes an order, he or she has all the necessary information
the
customer's credit rating and order history, the company's inventory levels and the shipping dock's
trucking schedule. Everyone else in the company can view the same information and has access
to the single database that holds the order. When one department finishes with the order, it is
automatically routed via the ERP system to the nest department. To find out where the order is at
any point, one need only log in to the system. With luck, the order process moves like a bolt of
lightning through the organization.
(3) Sounds too good to be true. What's the catch
To do ERP right, your company needs to change the way it does business. And that kind of
change doesn't come without pain. It's critical to figure out if your way of doing business will fit
within a standard ERP package before signing the check. The move to ERP is a project of
breathtaking scope, and the price tags on the front end are enough to make even the most placed
CFO a little twitchy. In addition to budgeting for software costs, financial executives should plan
to write checks to cover consulting, process rework, integration testing and a long list of other
expenses before the benefits of ERP appear. Underestimating the price of teaching users their
new job processes can lead to a rude shock, and so can failure to consider data warehouse
integration requirements and the cost of extra software to duplicate the old report formats.
Oversights in financial planning can send the costs of an ERP project spiraling out of control.
The impact will be far greater than any other systems project you have undertaken.

1, inventory  ['invəntri]
n. 详细目录,存货清单
2, embark  [em'bɑ:k, im-]
vi. 从事,着手;上船或飞机
vt. 使从事;使上船
3, mortgage  ['mɔ:gidʒ]
n.&v. 抵押
4, scant  [skænt]
a. 不充分的,不足的
v. 减缩,吝啬
5, lounge  [laundʒ]
n. 休息室;闲逛;躺椅;(英)酒吧间
vi. 闲逛;懒洋洋地躺卧;闲混
vt. 虚度光阴
6, twitchy  ['twitʃi]
adj. 焦急的;焦躁不安的,神经紧张的;痉挛的

Continue reading it-e-27 What is EDI?

it-e-28 Dial Peer

A dial peer, also known as an addressable call endpoint, is a device that can originate or
receive a call in a telephone network. In voice over IP (VoIP), addressable call endpoints can be
categorized as either voice-network dial peers or POTS (plain old telephone service) dial peers.
Voice-network dial peers include VoIP-capable computers, routers, and gateways within a
network. POTS dial peers include traditional phone sets, cell phones, and fax machines.
The term dial peer is sometimes used in reference to a program that matches a specific
dialed sequence of digits to an addressable call endpoint. According to this definition, there is
one dial peer for each call leg (connection between two addressable call endpoints).
Dial peer hunting is a feature of voice over IP(VoIP) systems in which the device at the
originating router attempts to find an alternative addressable call endpoint if it cannot establish a
connection to the intended endpoint. For dial peer hunting to work, the originating router must be
configured with a list (sequence) of dial peers, all of which can route a call to the same endpoint,
but using different destination routers. If the originating router receives an invalid-number or
user-busy code from the destination router, the originating router proceeds to the next dial peer
in the sequence.

Continue reading it-e-28 Dial Peer

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